For more information see: State of Maryland (Chapter 48, Acts of 1904, effective 9 March 1904), Archives of Maryland (Biographical Series) Cecilius Calvert, 2nd Lord Baltimore (1605–1675), English and Catholic: the Lords Baltimore in the Seventeenth Century, St Giles-in-the-Fields Church Website Section: Global Connections, Md. He had previously appointed a representative to act on his behalf, this man was Captain Wynne. It was created in 1625 and ended in 1771, upon the death of its sixth-generation male heir, aged 40. In 1625, Geroge publicly declared his Catholicism. While initially for commercial incentives, George later realized colonies in the New World could become a refuge for English Catholics and a place for religious freedom in general. [9] The complaint claimed that Maryland had not truly been unsettled, as stated in its charter, because William Claiborne had previously run a trading station on Kent Island in the middle of the Chesapeake Bay off the eastern shore. His title was "First Lord Proprietary, Earl Palatine of the Provinces of Maryland and Avalon in America". The first colonists to Maryland arrive at St. Clements Island on Marylands western shore and found the settlement of St. Marys. This was shortly after the death, in April 1632, of his father, The 1st Baron Baltimore, who had long sought the charter to found a colony in the mid-Atlantic area to serve as a refuge for English Roman Catholics. [1] Anne's father built Hook Manor, a country house near Semley, Wiltshire for her in 1637 and gave the house (which still stands) to the couple in 1639.[18]. The territory was named Maryland in honor of Henrietta Maria, the queen consort of Charles I. [8] In 1629, King Charles I had dissolved Parliament and governed for the next eleven years without consultation from any representative body. Each 1,000 acres would form a manor. The Calvert family was Roman Catholic, a religion which most inhabitants of the New World and followers of the Church of England were prejudiced against. By the age of 26, Baltimore had been thrust into the leadership of the young colony of Maryland thanks to an agreement by his father with the English King, Charles I. When he came to Newfoundland in 1627he brought with him two Roman Catholic priests, one of whom remained at the Colony of Avalon through 1629. "The Lords Baltimore: Establishing Religious Freedom." The Calvert family sought enactment of the law to protect Catholic settlers and Nonconformist Protestants who did not conform to the established Church of England. Parish records state that he is buried at St. Giles-in-the-Fields Church, London, UK,[19] though the exact location of his grave is unknown. The new colony was named after Henrietta Maria, the wife of the king. They had nine children. The enterprise took place in the context of serious unrest in England. Download this stock image: . Passed on 21 September 1649, by the General Assembly of the Maryland colony, it was the first law establishing religious tolerance in the British North American colonies. Baron, or Lord, Baltimore is a now extinct title of nobility in the Peerage of Ireland. Lord Baltimore was granted complete control over the colony, while he paid the king of England in gold and silver that the colonists discovered in North America. When the Crown realised that settlers from Virginia had already crossed the bay to begin settling the southern tip of their eastern shore, the grant was revised to include the eastern shore only as far south as a line drawn east from the mouth of the Potomac River (including the future State of Delaware). This was a severe stigma for a nobleman in 17th century England, where Roman Catholics were considered enemies of the crown and traitors to their country. It is accepted he did this exclusively to maintain possession of the colony during the civil war, as his loyalties were with King Charles. Cecil Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore (8 August 1605 – 30 November 1675), was an English nobleman who was the first Proprietor of the Province of Maryland, ninth Proprietary Governor of the Colony of Newfoundland and second of the colony of Province of Avalon to its southeast. The Province of Maryland was an English and later British colony in North America that existed from 1632 until 1776, when it joined the other twelve of the Thirteen Colonies in rebellion against Great Britain and became the U.S. state of Maryland. Cecil Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore (8 August 1605 – 30 November 1675), was an English nobleman who was the first Proprietor of the Province of Maryland, ninth Proprietary Governor of the Colony of Newfoundland and second of the colony of Province of Avalon to its southeast. The black and gold quarters were the arms of the Calverts themselves, while the red and silver were for the Crosslands, the family of the 1st Baron's mother, Alice. 2nd and 3rd Quarterly Argent and Gules over all a cross bottony counterchanged (Crosslands). The principles upon which Lord Baltimore launched his brief Colony of Avalon have considerable importance, beyond the scale of the settlement itself. Baltimore is an Anglicization of the Irish phrase "baile an thí mhóir e," which means "town of the big house." Calvert, however, became discouraged with the colony's cold climate and … [6] In questions of interpretation of rights, the Charter would be interpreted in favour of the proprietor. The history of Colony of Avalon does not stop with Lord Baltimore’s death. The 2nd Lord Baltimore fought against the new Charter. Lord Baltimore governed Maryland for forty-two years. George became invested in the colonization of the Americas. Everyday low … Subsequently, the charter and land settlement was left to his son, Cecil Calvert. This charter would be heavily contested by the 2nd Lord Baltimore's heirs and the Penn family in the Penn–Calvert Boundary Dispute. f my father, and it was because of his fair wordsand promises that I am waiting here in an inn nearthe waterside of our goodly city of London, until wordshall be sent that I may go on board the ship Ark,which lies at anchor close by. Today, on-going work at the Colony is changing the way we understand that past. This act mandated religious tolerance for Trinitarian Christians only. Maryland, in fact, became known as a haven for Roman Catholics in the New World. The title became extinct in 1771 after the death of the 6th Baron. Religious toleration became an important issue for the colony. [8] Rather than going to the colony himself, Baltimore stayed behind in England to deal with the political threat and sent his next younger brother Leonard in his stead. Lord Baltimore's dream of founding a colony in America did not fade with his return to England. 2nd Crisis His title was "First Lord Proprietary, Earl Palatine of the Provinces of Maryland and Avalon in America". By using ThoughtCo, you accept our. At this point there were few Marylanders yet in residence. However, genealogists for Kiplin Hall state, "A number of the early Calverts were buried at St Giles in the Fields, Charing Cross Road, London. [1] He was succeeded by his son and heir, Charles. George was an English politician who served as Secretary of State to King James I. Kelly, Martin. His mother Anne Mynne (or Mayne) died the following year. Calvert entered Trinity College at the University of Oxford in 1621. "The Lords Baltimore: Establishing Religious Freedom." Lord Baltimore's family also had title to Ferryland and the Province of Avalon in Newfoundland. 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